By Jason Warr
This textual content deals a unique contribution to the literature on middle criminological conception via introducing the complicated concerns when it comes to the structuring and analysing of causation. this article lines the paradigm shift, or go with the flow, that has happened within the historical past of criminology and exhibits how the matter of causation has been a number one consider those theoretical advancements. This brief publication is the 1st of its style and is an introductory textual content designed to introduce either professional criminologists in addition to scholars of criminology to the fascinating intersections among the fields of criminology and the philosophy of the social sciences.
The challenge of causation is notoriously tough and has plagued philosophers and scientists for hundreds of years. Warr highlights the significance of grappling with this challenge and demonstrates the way it can result in unsuccessful theorising and will hinder scholars from totally appreciating the improvement of pondering in criminology. This available account will turn out to be a must-read for students of felony justice, penology and philosophy of social science.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Criminological Theory and the Problem of Causation
Again it is evident that the causal framework underlying this aspect of the theory is the Humean model that has been discussed thus far. As such this strand, as with the ﬁrst, is open to the problems that beset the Humean model. Even if you combine the premises to give a fuller, or more exhaustive, account of the theory it does not matter because the truth functionality of the overall schema remains the same. It is still a conditionally structured theory and subject to the same problems. Both strands, separate or combined, are vulnerable, due to the conditional construction, to the problem presented by the Type 1 deviant causal chain and counterexample refutation.
In this instance, let premise 1 be represented by L, premise 2 by M, premise 3 by N, premise 4 by O, premise 5 by P, premise 6 by Q, premise 7 by R and, as before, criminality by C. So, when formalised, the argument is structured like this: ½ðLx ! MÞ^ðNx ! OÞ^ðPx ! QÞ ! Rx ! Cx Where the argument reads: if a person commits a minor act of deviance then this will be met with social penalties and if that person commits further acts of deviance then these will be met with stronger penalties and rejection and if deviance becomes serious then this will be met with formal action by the society and the stigmatising of the deviant; if all this occurs then the deviance will be internalised by the individual and secondary deviance will manifest; if this occurs then the individual will be a criminal.
One of the main criticisms of the Glueck’s work is that though they argue that delinquency/crime is caused by the complex interplay between 6 PARADIGM DRIFT AND CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORY 47 the previously mentioned factors/forces they do not give an account of the relations between these factors in any great detail. However, they argued at the beginning that the causal reasoning adopted by other theorists was inadequate and that they were impelled, by their ﬁndings, to adopt a more multidimensional interpretation (Glueck and Glueck 1950).