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A Guide to Modula-2 by Kaare Christian

By Kaare Christian

Modula-2 is a straightforward but strong programming language that's appropriate for a large choice of functions. it really is in accordance with Pascal, a profitable programming language that was once brought in 1970 by way of Niklaus Wirth. throughout the 1970's Pascal grew to become the main commonly taught programming language and it won reputation in technological know-how and undefined. In 1980 Dr. Wirth published the Modula-2 software­ ming language. Modula-2 is an evolution of Pascal. It improves at the successes of Pascal whereas including the MODULE - a device for ex­ urgent the kinfolk among the key components of courses. In advert­ dition Modula-2 comprises low-level beneficial properties for platforms software­ ming and coroutines for concurrent programming. Programming languages are very important simply because they're used to precise principles. a few programming languages are so restricted that sure principles cannot be simply expressed. for instance languages that lac okay floating aspect mathematics are irrelevant for clinical com­ putations. Languages resembling easy and Fortran that lack recur­ sion are wrong for textual content processing or platforms programming. occasionally a programming language is useable for a undeniable appli­ cation however it is much from excellent. a very good instance is the trouble of writing huge courses in natural Pascal. Pascal is a terrible language for giant jobs since it lacks amenities for partitioning a software viii Preface 6< ; ~~~~er zero\ Sheet steel Tube /" zero (to Affix Eraser to Shaft) ~ hole wood Shaft A Lead center determine 1. An exploded diagram. into separate items that may be built independently.

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INTEGERS can range from MIN(INTEGER) to MAX(INTEGER) The range is usually defined by the word size of the underlying machine. On sixteen bit computers the range is usually from -32768 to 32767. The comparison operators discussed in the previous subsection apply to INTEGERS. The result of comparing two INTEGERS is a BOOLEAN value. It is illegal to compare an INTEGER with a CARDINAL. Five arithmetic operations apply to INTEGERS: + * DIV MOD All five arithmetic operators require that both operands are INTEGERS.

2. Make syntax diagrams to describe the following situations: a. Every morning I wake up and brush my hair. Then I sometimes take several bites of my cereal. Some mornings I remember to brush my teeth and wash my face, and then I go to work. b. Drive to Grandmothers by taking the highway to Shelter Rock Road, to Orange Drive, and then Turnip Place. Remember to take the service road of the highway if the highway itself is crowded. c. When you are on a hike and you get tired, use the rest step. After moving your weight to one leg, completely straighten the leg so that you are supported without using muscle power.

WriteLn END hello. Notice that the two references to the PROCEDURES from InOut use qualified identifiers: InOut. Wri teString and InOut. Wri teLn. If these routines are used extensively it becomes unpleasant to type the qualified identifier each time. Here is another version of the hello program that uses unqualified names. '); WriteLn END hello1. Notice the FROM phrase in the IMPORT list. This allows unqualified references to Wri teString and Wri teLn. 1. 4. An Overview of the InOut global MODULE In Modula-2 I/O operations aren't built into the language.

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